• Main ideas are individualism, self-improvement, spiritualism, and moral protest.

  • Wisdom comes from nature; experience is the key to understanding.

  • Pantheism--nature and the physical world as a manifestation of a divine.

  • Focuses on the divinity of man and his relationship to nature.

  • Belief that people can achieve spirituality without organized religion.

  • Belief that people are responsible for their own development.

  • Optimistic, convinced in the essential goodness and purposefulness of life.


Ralph Waldo Emerson

Margaret Fuller

Henry David Thoreau

Walt Whitman

Page updated 8/7/15.